A research project at the University of Catania on

security, multilateralism, and Italy’s performance in multilateralism


[ADISM is the Italian acronym of “Data Archive on Italy and Multilateral Security”]

A project of the Department of Political Studies, University of Catania.


When using the data, please cite this website and the codebook version number.


Codebook Version 1.2007 —  CODEBOOK Version 2.2008 — Codebook Version 3.2010 CSDP



CODEBOOK Version 2.2008


Definition of ‘multilateral peace/security operation’.

ADISM defines multilateral peace/security operation as: “an operation decided by international organisations and groups of countries for the purpose of interrupting violence also at the earliest stage of explosion, and reconstructing peace, security, civilian and humanitarian conditions in countries and areas that are upset by international and domestic conflict”.

A multilateral peace/security operation employs military/police and/or civil personnel of several countries (sometimes, a single country under the responsibility of an international organisation) with a mandate for either single or cumulative tasks which are commonly known as peace support, peacekeeping, peace building, and peace enforcement. Missions with a mandate to carry out mediation, offer good offices, and give political advise only are not included in the ‘peace/security operation’ class.


This Codebook version (2.2008) is valid for the data of the multilateral peace/security operations organized by:

United Nations


OSCE (Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe)

European Union/ESDP

OAU (Organisation of African Unity)

AU (African Union)

ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States)

CEMAC (Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa)

CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States)

OAS (Organisation of American States)

Commonwealth of Nations

Arab League

Ad-Hoc Coalitions (See below)

The dataset covers the time period October 1st, 1947 to September 1st, 2008.


Precision problems.

Collecting data on multilateral peace/security operations faces with difficult problems of precision and missing data. Available information is scanty, uneven and fluctuating. The official sources, i.e. those of the sender organisations and also participating national governments (defence and foreign affairs departments), are neither comprehensive in coverage, nor regular in providing information, nor standardized regarding the definition of the items.

Data recording is complicated by the normal change of country membership and the personnel size of multilateral peace/security operations during the time of action.

At the exception of a small number of cases, these problems are solved by crossing the information of different sources where available.

Missing’ is recorded where data are either unavailable or highly controversial.



In this Codebook version (2.2008), eleven  items are recorded for each unit of observation, i.e. the single multilateral peace/security operation.


It identifies the operation. The official acronym is employed. In the few cases of no official acronym, and the sender organisation’s use of two or more acronyms for reasons that do not affect the main characters of the operation, the operation is identified either by one of the acronyms, or a short name, or the double acronym.

The list of the full name of all the operations is also available.

2. ORGANISATION/ACTOR in charge of the operation

The official name of the organisation(s) in charge of the operation.

UN                                         United Nations

NATO                                    North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

EU                                          European Union

OSCE                                    Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe

OAU                                      Organisation of African Unity

AU                                          African Union

ECOWAS                            Economic Community of West African States

CEMAC                               Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa

CIS                                         Commonwealth of Independent States

OAS                                       Organisation of American States

Commonwealth of Nations

Arab League

Ad-Hoc Coalition          All forms of un-institutionalised coalition (the very few cases of single-country actions are also included in this category)



One of the following seven geographical areas in which the operation is located:

EUR                      Europe

SSA                       Sub-Saharan Africa

LAC                       Latin America and Caribbean

CSA                       Central and South Asia

SEA                       South East Asia

MENA                 Middle East and Northern Africa

PAC                      Pacific Islands / Oceania



The official name of the country/countries of deployment of the operation personnel. In controversial cases, the name of the geographical territory and area of the operation site, like the Golan Heights, Western Sahara, Prevlaka, Kosovo, Middle East, and the West Africa Countries, is recorded.


The year and month of personnel deployment to, and withdrawal from, the site of the operation. The operations that are active as of September 1st, 2008, are appropriately recorded.

Starting and Ending dates come from either the official website of the respective operation or from the following publication:

- Heldt Birger and Wallensteen Peter (2004), Peace and Security Operations: Global Patterns of Intervention and Success, 1948 – 2004,. Folke Bernadotte Academy Publications.

For simplicity reasons, in many cases, the first day of the month has been indicated as the starting/end date even though the operation started/ended at some other day during the month.


The time duration of the operation in number of years.


The time duration of the operation in number of months.


The size of the military and civil personnel, i.e. the number of the individuals deployed to the operation site, as given by the official and other publicly available information sources.

The numbers of deployed personnel are peak numbers, meaning that in the case of change of the number of the employed personnel during the time of the operation, the highest number is recorded as the personnel size of the operation.

The data of the United Nations operations have been collected from the Secretary General‘s Report (see for the period 1947-1992, the Lebovic’s dataset (see for the period 1992-2000, and UN peacekeeping website for the remaining years. Additionally, for UN operations that are still active the SIPRI dataset was taken into account (, in order to better find the peak numbers of the respective operation (see here below).

The data of the NATO operations have been collected from the NATO website  and

The data of the OSCE operations have been collected from the OSCE website  and

The data of the European Union operations have been collected from the ESDP operations website and also from:

The data of all the other operations have been collected from the respective operation official website, and



The total number of deaths in the operation personnel as counted by the official and other publicly available information sources.

The data of the United Nations operations are mostly those of the official website:

The data of all the other operations have been collected from



The presence and form of the UN Security Council authorization, endorsement, and absence of it. Accordingly, operations are classified as it follows:

UN-6                    UN-led, without Chapter VII authority

UN-7                     UN-led, with Chapter VII authority

UN-A-7               Security-Council-authorised, under Chapter VII

UN-E                    Security-Council-endorsed or recognised

NUN                     No recognition or explicit endorsement from UN Security Council



The local level of the agency (i..e. initiative, organization, and action) of the operation

Yes                   Operation led by regional organisations either in the territory of one or more states of the region or in what qualifies as the “neighbourhood” of the organisation region. In the case of ad-hoc coalitions, an operation is a regional one when the countries involved (i.e. especially those leading the operation) come from the conflict country’s broader regional neighbourhood.

No                    All other operations, including all UN operations even though regional characteristics are loosely present within single UN operations.